CHAPTER ONEREADING Page 2 and 3
THE YOUNG GREEN CONSUMER GUIDE
Review by Tony Ma
This book says that our world is in danger. It is vital that we do something to save the earth. First of all, what are the threats to our environment?
The Greenhouse Effect
The writers ask us to imagine the earth inside a kind of greenhouse with the atmosphere around it acting like the glass, letting sunlight in while keeping much of the warmth from getting out. The atmosphere is essential to all living things. Without it, the earth would be as cold and lifeless as the surface of the moon. The trouble is that our atmosphere is changing because we are polluting it with chemicals in the form of gases and it is keeping in too much heat! These gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), are produced by burning fuels such as petrol. The Greenhouse Effect may cause the level of the sea to rise and drown cities and even whole countries.
Damage to the ozone layer
The writers tell us that ozone is a gas which occurs 20-50 km above the ground. It forms an essential protective layer around the earth. Without it, the sun would burn us up. We are making holes in the ozone layer mainly by using chemicals called CFCs. We use these in fridges and spray cans and to make plastic items such as fast food boxes.
Destruction of the rain forests
The burning and cut-ting down of trees is making the Greenhouse Effect worse, because trees take in CO2. It also causes erosion of the soil and flooding, as well as destroying the people and animals who make the forests their home.
Many of our habits cause pollution especially our habit of using things once and then throwing them away. This creates massive mountains of rubbish. We do not know what to do with the rubbish and it pollutes our land and sea. For example, seven billion drink cans are thrown away in Britain each year. That is enough to reach from the earth to the moon.
How can we save the earth?
The book"s idea is that we should become green consumers. That is, we should only buy and use things that do not damage the environment. And we should buy only from companies that do not damage the environment either.
LISTENING Page 5 and 6
Understanding the sequence of events
Listen to the five short stories on the recording.
For each story, look at the three pictures below and on page 6. The pictures are in the wrong order. You must write 1, 2 and 3 to show the correct order in which the events happened.
SPEAKING Page10 and 11 A Talk Time
Preferences and reasons
When we express a preference for something, we say we like it better than something else. Sometimes we give a reason why we prefer it.
Arthur is in a restaurant with Pansy. He is ordering some food and drinks. Read their conversation and answer the questions. Then work in pairs to practise the conversation.
Let"s have a drink, Pansy. They"ve got Coke milk, shakes, tea and coffee. Which would you prefer?
I"d prefer a Coke. What about you?
I"m going to have a hot coffee. I need something to warm me up. Waiter! One Coke and one coffee, please!
MORE PRACTICE Page 15
Pollution means contaminating the Earth"s environment with materials that harm people"s health and lower their quality of life. Pollution can also harm animals and plants. There are many different forms of pollution. The three major groups are air pollution, land pollution and water pollution.
Air pollution comes from many different sources not all of them are man-made. For example, dust storms in deserts and the smoke from forest fires are natural sources of air pollution. In urban areas, dirty air is more noticeable, because of the fumes from traffic and the waste from factories. Air pollution can affect humans by causing sore eyes and respiratory problems, especially in children and the elderly. Land pollution is caused by the deposit of solid waste (e.g., cans, bottles, plastic, etc.) that cannot be broken down quickly or at all.
Land pollution can affect the lives of animals and plants and it makes the environment look very bad. Recycling and reusing materials can help reduce the amount of land pollution. Other methods include landfill, using the rubbish to make new land and burning the rubbish, but these two methods can pollute the water and air.
Water pollution results when substances that are released into lakes, rivers, oceans, etc. stay in the water or build up at the bottom. This form of pollution may also begin in the air if the air is polluted and causes acid rain. When it rains, the rain will then pollute the water in lakes, rivers oceans, etc. Soil erosion is one example of natural water pollution and can cause problems if the soil blocks the flow of water and leads to flooding. Pollution from human sources includes chemicals, pesticides, waste from factories and human sewage.